Your Research Question/Hypothesis:
Your specific research question(s) or hypotheses should be stated in your introductory paragraph and in your abstract.
Abstract: Your proposal will begin with an abstract of your proposed study (one paragraph). This is basically a summary of your proposal and it includes your research question.
After the abstract, research proposals generally begin with an introductory section that describes the research problem and establishes its significance. This section answers the following kinds of questions:
What exactly do you want to study?
Why is it worth studying?
Does the proposed study have theoretical and/or practical significance?
Does it contribute to a new understanding of a phenomenon (e.g., does it address new or little-known material or does it treat familiar material in a new way or does it challenge an existing understanding or extend existing knowledge)?
Literature Review: This section is a review of the literature on your topic. It is basically a term/research paper on your topic and tells the reader information that has already been discovered regarding your topic. The research problem or objective needs to be situated within a context of other scholarship in the area(s). The literature review presents a discussion of the most important research and theoretical work relating to the research problem/objective.
It addresses the following kinds of questions:
What have others said about this area(s)?
What theories address it and what do these say?
What research has been done (or not done) previously?
Are there consistent findings or do past studies disagree?
Are there flaws or gaps in the previous research that your study will seek to remedy?