Infectious Disease Trends

Infectious Disease Trends. Understanding diseases present within the community allows public health nurses to prioritize health promotion and disease prevention strategies.

Infectious Disease

Introduce

Understanding diseases present within the community allows public health nurses to prioritize health promotion and disease prevention strategies.

Analyze infectious diseases by:

Defining epidemiologyoutbreakincidence, and prevalence

Evaluating the role of nursing within epidemiology

Evaluating current infectious diseases locally, statewide, and nationally

Associating three of the most current infectious diseases with Healthy People 2020 objectives

Analyzing evidence-based practices aimed at reducing infectious diseases

Format your assignment as one of the following:

700- to 1,050-word paper

Cite a minimum of three scholarly sources.

Include an APA-formatted reference page.

Infectious Disease Trends

Solution

            Infectious diseases continue to be a major threat to public health. By definition, the term infectious disease describes one that is transmitted from one individual or vector carrying the pathogen. Erraguntla et al. (2019) observe that infectious diseases pose a great challenge on the individual on a global scale. This challenge has led the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to set standards concerning data, national diseases, together with conditions collected by their respective states reporting relevant information specific to existing notifiable infectious diseases. Once collected the information.

The National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) then facilitates an up to date report on notifiable disease surveillance program. As such, the current essay outlines an analysis on Infectious disease trends within the context of evaluating the role of nursing within epidemiology. Prior to the evaluation, the paper presents a working definition of key terms   like epidemiology, outbreak, and incidence amongst others.  Next, the paper evaluates the current infectious diseases at the local, state, and national level before linking three of the most infectious diseases to Healthy People 2020 objectives.

Towards the end, an analysis of evidence- based practices and their significance in decreasing infectious disease and ends with a conclusion that gives the paper’s highlights.

Defining Epidemiology, Outbreak, Incidence, and Prevalence

While acknowledging that there exists as many definitions as there professionals in describing epidemiology, the contextual definition adopted considers it the main science of public health dealing with the analysis and dissemination of health factors in relation to diseases (Adhikari et al., 2020). Most importantly, epidemiology concentrates on trends connected to population health with the overriding goals and objectives of deterring the identified disease, preserve health, and maintain health security.

On the other hand, Outbreak describes an unforeseen event of an infectious disease contained in a restricted geographical area within a short period. Furthermore, Fernandez et al. (2020) defines incidence as the classification and monitoring of the occurrence of a disease’s new cases within a particular population. The limited scope of this paper defines prevalence as the last term to mean existing cases of selected diseases within a specific time. In contemporary healthcare practice, nobody doubts the connection between human health and globalization as dictated by infectious diseases.

Scholars and Practitioners alike have a consensus that prevalence, rate of propagation, demographics, economic, and technological factors all play a key role in spread and control of infectious diseases.

Evaluating the Role of Nursing within Epidemiology

The passage of time in the 2020s and beyond means progressed in nursing continues unabated. This passage translates into the changing role and scope of nursing continues to change with each passing day. Through epidemiology, public health  receives a comprehensive understand ding concerning disease and injury    incidence, spread, and  transmission, Throughout the patient care continuum nursing of the 21st century is the glue that binds a patient’s journey in healthcare as they look for care. The nurse professional works tirelessly to identify and protect the individual needs of a patient.

 In concise form, the role a nurse plays in recognition and identification of notifiable infectious diseases means their prevention is paramount.  The nurse of contemporary world is a patient’s advocate as they take frontline position in patient care. This vantage position underpins a nurse’s pivotal position in offering optimal patient care and their subsequent outcomes.

With different nurses specializing in different specialty areas found in the nursing profession, the resulting specialist nurses have the capacity to apply knowledge sources that would help prevent infection control besides developing g policies and procedures necessary for disease management and decrease in infection rates (Gullis & Fujino, 2015).

Healthcare professionals and clinical nursing researchers admit that the role of nurses in the 21st century is to consult, make follow up treatments, impart patient education and prevention of diseases whether these diseases are in their acute or chronic form.

Evaluating Current Infectious Diseases Locally, Statewide, And Nationally

At the local level, Colorado Springs in Colorado  released its latest El Paso County Health People 2020 prevalence of influenza where it reported that 32 individuals had been hospitalized  4 of whom were children below 12 and 28 grownups (Houser & Subbarao, 2015). Infectious diseases like influenza vaccine preventable and constitute community health interventions geared towards the reduction   infectious diseases preventable though vaccines. For example, influenza vaccine remains the front line intervention measure used to alleviate the suffering occasioned by influenza infection.

At the state level, the Colorado Department of Health and Environment( CDPHE) that utilizes geographical ;positioning systems(GPS_) to tabulate program tracks,  of infectious diseases, identify their trends in infection  and disseminate the necessary information to officials of public health  and the general public domiciled in Colorado state. CDPHE (2020) further remark that Mumps cases continue to increase with close to seventy cases being reported in 2019 alone.

Grennan (2019) states that mumps synonymously known infectious parotitis is an infectious disease characterized by general malaise and discomfort manifestations with swollen glands with s particular bias towards the parotid glands located near the ears region.

MMR vaccine. Like other vaccine preventable infectious diseases Mumps prevention holds the key to a healthy population but only if they are willing to remain updated.  At the Federal level corona virus disease remains the single most infectious disease that has claimed about 600 0000 lives (Schellekens & Sourrouille, 2020). First reported in China on the eve of 2020, COVID- 19 clinically presents with signs and symptoms that include but are not limited to flu like symptoms, dry cough, and in severe cases difficulties in breathing and chest pains

Associating Three of the Most Current Infectious Diseases with Healthy People 2020 Objectives

The United States Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) developed a program known as Healthy People 2020 whose federal goals would cover the next decade beginning 2010.  The three topic areas given prominence in this program are Immunization and Infectious Diseases. Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV/AIDS), and Sexually Transmitted Infections would be one of its primary targets. In general, the three goals addressing the said health issues seek to achieve their objective through tests, screenings, and vaccinations.

Using vaccines to control and prevent vaccine preventable infectious diseases form vital strategies in containing and lowering the incidence of infectious diseases among selected populations. At this juncture, it is important to note that since Healthy People 2020 is a decade long national efforts designed to set the goals and objectives meant to improve the goals for the next decade lasting up to 2030 have been set with goals like attainment of healthy living and wellbeing free of disabilities, preventable diseases, injury and premature death.

It further endeavors to eliminate health disparities to achieve health equity and realize health literacy bound to improve all people’s general health and wellbeing (Hasbrouck, 2021).

Analyzing Evidence-Based Practices (EBPs) Aimed At Reducing Infectious Diseases

Evidence based practices (EBP) is a new approach to healthcare practices where medical care, healthcare, and nursing care is delivered thorough the most current up to date treatments and other healthcare strategies. Under EBP, the provider integrates existing evidence combined with clinical judgement   in a manner that guarantees optimal use of the synthesized evidence. Notable among these strategies is hand washing activities whose efficacy and cost effectiveness has seen it being promoted a leading public health interventi0on.

Other forms of interventions are; like bundling of EBPs meaning that different bundles are used to effect small, yet effective and sustainable changes in practice. The ultimate outcome that primarily determines of the EBPs efficacy is its ability to improve quality of life and reduce health and patient outcomes.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this essay has determined that there is need to vaccinate children against vaccine preventable infectious diseases even as monitoring strategies continue to be used. An individual’s general wellbeing demands that nurse professionals like other healthcare providers be ready to intervene and remain vigilant to the threats posed by infectious diseases.

As knowledge on infectious diseases continues to advance, knowledge regarding the location, timing, and infectious disease intensity calls for an interdisciplinary and interprofessional collaboration in implementation of   proactive measures that help to control and manage infectious diseases.

The utilization of multiple disease models and an effective integration framework allows for improved pandemic planning and level of preparedness at the local, state, regional, national and worldwide. The success of intervention measures solely rests of support offered at different stages of disease emergence, spread and decline.

References

Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y. J., Mao, Y. P., Ye, R. X., Wang, Q. Z., … & Zhou, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious diseases of poverty9(1), 1-12.

Colorado Local Public Health and Environment Resources (CDPHE). (2020). Communicable disease prevention, investigation and control.

Erraguntla, M., Zapletal, J., & Lawley, M. (2019). Framework for Infectious Disease Analysis: A comprehensive and integrative multi-modeling approach to disease prediction and management. Health informatics journal25(4), 1170-1187.

Fernández, L., Cima-Cabal, M. D., Duarte, A. C., Rodriguez, A., García, P., & García-Suárez, M. D. M. (2020). Developing Diagnostic and Therapeutic Approaches to Bacterial Infections for a New Era: Implications of Globalization. Antibiotics9(12), 916.

Grennan, D. (2019). Mumps. Jama322(10), 1022-1022.

Gulis, G., & Fujino, Y. (2015). Epidemiology, population health, and health impact assessment. Journal of epidemiology25(3), 179-180.

Hasbrouck, L. (2021). Healthy People 2030: an improved framework. Health Education & Behavior48(2), 113-114.

Houser, K., & Subbarao, K. (2015). Influenza vaccines: challenges and solutions. Cell host & microbe, 17(3), 295–300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2015.02.012

Schellekens, P., & Sourrouille, D. M. (2020). COVID-19 mortality in rich and poor countries: a tale of two pandemics?. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, (9260).

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Infectious Disease Trends
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