creatinine: Discuss the study design, the key evidence of the paper.

creatinine: Discuss the study design, the key evidence of the paper. and any problems with their research or the study design. After readi…

creatinine

Introduction

For this discussion, you will read an article and discuss the results. . If your last name(Smith) begins with letters N through Z, read the Bashash article. Summarize the main findings of the article. Discuss the study design, the key evidence of the paper, and any problems with their research or the study design. After reading the article, do you think fluoride in water is a health risk?

Bashash, M., Thomas, D., Hu, H., Angeles Martinez-Mier, E., Sanchez, B. N., Basu, N., Hernández-Avila, M. (2017). Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(9), 097017. http://doi.org/10.1289/EHP655

Summary

The article, “Prenatal fluoride exposure and cognitive outcomes in children at 4 and 6-12 years of age in Mexico” by Bashash et al., aimed to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with offspring neurocognitive development. The research sample was derived from exclusion criteria resulting in 512 participants, particularly mothers with or without offspring. Of the 512 participants, further characterizations were made to ascertain offspring with outcome data on IQ and GCI (Bashash et al., 2017).

A further development was that the values of creatinine-corrected urine fluoride were significant for populations with GCI outcome and those exhibiting IQ outcome. As a result, comparisons between GCI and IQ stores depicted confounding correlation GCI at 4 years and IQ at 12 years and signified high prenatal exposure to fluoride. This explains the average rates of creatinine-adjusted maternal urinary fluoride concentrations during pregnancy.

High fluoride exposures were set between 0.88 to 11.0 mg/L while low levels range 0.20 to 1.0 mg/L. Children raised in high exposure areas tend to have low IQ compared to those growing in low exposure areas (Bashash et al., 2017). Because the sample constituted women and children, these findings are generalizable to other populations because results are among few others that measured prenatal fluoride levels among women group extracted from population-based samples.

The research utilized an experimental design; ion-selective electrode-based methods measured the total prenatal samples and ascertained the impacts of prenatal exposures to fluoride on cognitive functioning.

Fluoride is a naturally occurring element in water and soil resources as well as food substances. Also, fluoride can be produced synthetically, and this presents varying effects on human health because of its composition. Adding huge amounts of fluoride to water enhances health by everting tooth decay prevalence. Nevertheless, maintaining moderate levels of fluoride is recommended, especially for pregnant women and children.

References

Bashash, M., Thomas, D., Hu, H., Angeles Martinez-Mier, E., Sanchez, B., & Basu, N. et al. (2017). Prenatal fluoride exposure and cognitive outcomes in children at 4 and 6–12 years of age in Mexico. Environmental Health Perspectives125(9), 097017. doi: 10.1289/ehp655

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creatinine: Discuss the study design, the key evidence of the paper.
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